Abstract Allogeneic islet transplantation (IT) provokes changes in metabolic responses and nutritional behaviors. The durability of these changes needs to be described as well as their impact on the recipients' lifestyle. The goal of this study was to investigate how islet transplantation influenced diet, exercise habits, and body composition during 10 years after IT. A retrospective study performed in 33 (14 males, 19 females) IT recipients used dietary, physical activity open- ended questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were collected before transplantation, every 3 months up to the 18th and every 6 months thereafter. Data were grouped by gender and eras: pre-IT; 0–3 years; 4–6 years, and 7–10 years after IT. Reduction in body mass index (BMI) from pre-IT to 0–3 years was noted: 23.68 ± 2,18 kg/m2 to 22.07 ± 2.94 kg/m2 (P < .05). Increased values were observed from 0–3 years to 4–6 years in: waist circumference (WC) (76.68 ± 7.22 to 79.44 ± 7.58 cm), BMI (23,68 ± 2,18 to 22,75 ± 3,11 kg/m2) and weight (64.69 ± 11.98 to 67.43 ± 14 kg): (P < .03). WC increased continuously up to 7–10 years (86.33 ± 9.45 cm; P < .05). There was an average of 5.3 ± 5.6 h/wk of exercise during follow-up. From pre-IT to 0–3 years there was a 19% reduction in protein consumption (P < .05) and a 39% increase in calories from saturated fats (P < .05). A trend to reduce carbohydrates intake noted from pre-IT to 0–3 years was progressively inverted from then throughout 7–10 years (not significant). IT was associated with a significantly decreased BMI early on that it was not sustained. The subsequent weight gain and WC increase could be the result of chronic immunosuppressive therapy and/or voluntary change in eating habits. The increased consumption of carbohydrates could be related to an adaptation of a lifestyle or/and reintroduction of insulin after graft dysfunction. Active lifestyle might be result of the intensive clinical care after IT, concomitant awareness of the importance of routine physical exercise on blood glucose control, and diabetes management. Continuous follow-up of IT recipients is needed to better understand these changes and for comparison with subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus.