The goal of the thesis is to evaluate possible effects of the highway construction on the landscape structure in terms of certain landscape characteristics (especially the macrostructure and microstructure). Applied method, for figure out the impact of the highway on the landscape structure, is based on a comparison of two areas with different characteristics. One has been influenced by highway construction since the very beginning of observed period. And in the other area, the highway has been present since the beginning of 90s. Based on this assumption, two areas have been selected, in which the study was carried out. The first area, part of highway D1 (located in Central Bohemia Region, district Prague – West, between the municipalities Jesenice and Hvězdonice) is the oldest part of the Czech highway network. The second area, part of highway D3 (stretched in South Bohemia Region, district Tábor, between municipalities Moraveč and Měšice) is one of the newest parts of the Czech highway network. Analyses included the time period from the year 1949 to 2007. The year 1949 was chosen partly because of its crucial importance in the Czech landscape development, and partly due to the history of D1 highway. Data were processed and analyzed in GIS environment. It is obvious, from the comparison of the development in both highway parts, that the changes in landscape structure correspond to the main political changes after the year 1948, especially those in 70s and 80s, so called collectivization and land consolidation. Highway contributed to the development of residential and commercial buildings (especially in those parts which are close to the large cities) as well as scattered vegetation which area has significantly increased immediately after the completion of the highway construction.