Abstract The TATA box-binding protein (TBP) is an essential component of transcription initiation complexes of all three eukaryotic RNA polymerases. Increasing evidence suggests that the TBP activity and availability may be regulated to precisely control gene transcription and play an important role in cell type-specific regulation. Arabidopsis TBP-2 is up-regulated in apical shoot tissues. Overexpression of TBP-2 in transgenic Arabidopsis induces apical shoot proliferation. The expression of some shoot meristem regulatory genes is altered. These data suggest that the TBP gene dosage and/or expression level may play an important role in controlling shoot production and plant morphology.