Abstract A field based epidemiological study was undertaken to assess the potential of transmission of scrub typhus in the sylvatic and transitional (fringe) areas at ten different locations around Pune. Parameters studied included rodent trapping and identification, entomological parameters, immunological studies on rodent sera, and rodent organ impression smears. The study revealed that Rattus r rufescence, Rattus meltada, Suncus murinus and Rattus blanfordi were the predominant sylvatic rodent species. All the species showed mild to moderate infestation with trombiculid mite larvae, with Rr rufescence and S murinus showing even higher levels of infestation. Pooled rodent sera showed mild rise of OX2 in 13.9%, OX19 in 5.6% and OXK in 9.8% of the pooled sera. The rise in titres was appreciable among rodents from Lonavala, Khadakvasla, Panchet, Singhgadh and Kondhwa areas. Based on the findings of the study, certain recommendations on prevention, surveillance and epidemic investigations of scrub typhus in the Armed Forces have been submitted.