Isografts of cortical bone were tranplanted subcutaneously in the rat and the rate of osteogenesis 12 to 14 days later was assessed by measurement of 85Sr uptake and by histology. Some grafts were implanted complete whereas others had had one or more of their cellular components (viz. periosteum, endosteum, osteocytes, marrow) removed by mechanical or enzymatic pretreatment. From an analysis of the differences in osteogenesis between grafts devoid of different combinations of cellular components, the contribution of each component to osteogenesis was determined. The results indicate that the endosteal lining cells and marrow stroma together produce more than half of the new bone, the periosteal cells contribute about 30%, the osteocytes possibly make a small (10%) contribution, and the free, hemopoietic cells of the marrow make no significant contribution. Evidence about the relative contributions to osteogenesis of graft and host cells is reviewed and the possible osteogenetic role of bone marrow is discussed.