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Early introduction of complementary foods/drinks and milk feeding type in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC).

Authors
  • Marks, Kristin J1, 2, 3
  • Boundy, Ellen O2, 3
  • Nakayama, Jasmine Y1, 2
  • Li, Ruowei2
  • Hamner, Heather C2
  • 1 Epidemic Intelligence Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. , (Georgia)
  • 2 Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. , (Georgia)
  • 3 United States Public Health Service, Rockville, Maryland, USA. , (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Maternal & child nutrition
Publication Date
Oct 01, 2023
Volume
19
Issue
4
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1111/mcn.13541
PMID: 37415299
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Infants younger than 4 months are not ready for complementary foods/drinks (any solid or liquid other than breast milk or infant formula). Almost half of US infants participate in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC), which provides nutrition education and support to low-income families. We describe the prevalence of early introduction (<4 months) of complementary foods/drinks and examine the association of milk feeding type (fully breastfed, partially breastfed or fully formula fed) with early introduction of complementary foods/drinks. We used data from 3310 families in the longitudinal WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study-2. We described the prevalence of early introduction of complementary foods/drinks and modeled the association of milk feeding type at Month 1 with early introduction of complementary foods/drinks using multi-variable logistic regression. Thirty-eight percent of infants were introduced early to complementary foods/drinks (<4 months). In adjusted models, infants who were fully formula fed or partially breastfed at Month 1 were 75% and 57%, respectively, more likely to be introduced early to complementary foods/drinks compared with fully breastfed infants. Almost two in five infants were given complementary foods/drinks early. Formula feeding at Month 1 was associated with higher odds of early introduction of complementary foods/drinks. There are opportunities to support families participating in WIC to prevent early introduction of complementary foods/drinks and promote child health. Published 2023. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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