During the 1997-2002 period, 48 eyes of 41 patients of the mean age 58 years were operated on because of complications of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. In the cohort of operated patients, the type I diabetes mellitus was determined in 10 (21%) cases, the type II diabetes mellitus in 36 (75%) cases, and in two cases (4%), another type of diabetes was detected. One patient of those two had LADA type diabetes and the second one had secondary diabetes due to chronic pancreatitis. In the early postoperative period, or during first three months postoperatively, after the pars plana vitrectomy, the visual acuity (VA) in 28 (59%) eyes improved, in 16 (33%) eyes remained the same, and in 4 eyes (8%) worsened. VA 1/60 (0.017 or 3/200) and better had 37 (77%) eyes, VA 6/60 (0.1 or 20/200) and better had 17 (37%) eyes, and VA 6/12 and better (0.5 or 20/40) had 3 (6%) eyes only. VA worse than 1/60 (0.017 or 3/200) had 11 (23%) eyes. Authors emphasize the importance of regular and detailed ophthalmologic examinations with early diagnosis of pathological changes and early start of adequate treatment.