One hundred forty-eight urine specimens were collected from 47 renal transplant and dialysis patients and screened for the detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV). Diagnosis of CMV infection was suggested in 17 out of 47 patients (36.2%) by more than one of the five methods used. DNA hybridisation assay (DNA HA) using 32P-labelled probe detected CMV DNA in 15 (31.9%) of 47 patients, whereas virus isolation on conventional tube cell cultures (CTC), immunofluorescence incorporating monoclonal antibodies on centrifugation vial cultures (IF), complement fixation test (CFT), and electron microscopy (EM) yielded positive results in only nine (19.2%), 12 (25.2%), 11 (23.4%), and one (2.1%) of 47 patients, respectively. The significance of these results obtained by DNA HA lies not only in the apparent increase in number of patients diagnosed, but also in both early and rapid detection of CMV DNA. More importantly, the DNA HA is highly specific in that it correlates accurately with clinical and laboratory data characteristic of CMV disease. In respect of clinically manifest CMV disease, the specificity of DNA HA, CTC, IF, CFT, and EM was 87.5, 43.7, 56.3, 43.7, and 6.3%, respectively. These advantages of DNA HA make it the test of choice for early diagnosis of CMV infections in immunosuppressed patients.