Chronic administration of isoproterenol (IPR) results in a marked hypertrophy and in the induction of a group of putative proline-rich polypeptides in the mouse parotid glands. Some of these polypeptides (pps C-G) have been considered as molecular markers of the parotid gland enlargement. Given the secretory character of polypeptides C-G, the polypeptide composition of mouse saliva was used to monitor the IPR-induced salivary gland hypertrophy. Whole saliva was collected after an oral administration of pilocarpine (PIL). Under those conditions, PIL provoked a massive salivary secretion both in normal control mice and during the whole course of the IPR-induced gland enlargement. Striking changes in the polypeptide composition of saliva obtained from chronically IPR-stimulated animals were observed. Those changes consisted basically in the appearance and progressive increase in concentration of parotid polypeptides C-G and in the progressive diminution in concentration of a couple of normal salivary polypeptides (polypeptides A-B). The appearance of new polypeptides in saliva could be established unequivocally within the 24 h following the trophic adrenergic stimulation. On the other hand, salivary polypeptides induced in response to a single administration of IPR could be demonstrated as late as 7-9 days after the stimulation. Accordingly, detection of parotid polypeptides C-G in PIL-produced saliva obtained from IPR-stimulated mice has proved to be a highly advantageous method to evaluate salivary gland hypertrophy both at very early stages after the trophic stimulation and late after the occurrence of the trophic episode.