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Early Detection of Fusarium oxysporum Infection in Processing Tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) and Pathogen–Soil Interactions Using a Low-Cost Portable Electronic Nose and Machine Learning Modeling

Authors
  • feng;, hanyue
Publication Date
Nov 09, 2022
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/s22228645
OAI: oai:mdpi.com:/1424-8220/22/22/8645/
Source
MDPI
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

The early detection of pathogen infections in plants has become an important aspect of integrated disease management. Although previous research demonstrated the idea of applying digital technologies to monitor and predict plant health status, there is no effective system for detecting pathogen infection before symptomatology appears. This paper presents the use of a low-cost and portable electronic nose coupled with machine learning (ML) models for early disease detection. Several artificial neural network models were developed to predict plant physiological data and classify processing tomato plants and soil samples according to different levels of pathogen inoculum by using e-nose outputs as inputs, plant physiological data, and the level of infection as targets. Results showed that the pattern recognition models based on different infection levels had an overall accuracy of 94.4–96.8% for tomato plants and between 94.81% and 96.22% for soil samples. For the prediction of plant physiological parameters (photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and transpiration) using regression models or tomato plants, the overall correlation coefficient was 0.97–0.99, with very significant slope values in the range 0.97–1. The performance of all models shows no signs of under or overfitting. It is hence proven accurate and valid to use the electronic nose coupled with ML modeling for effective early disease detection of processing tomatoes and could also be further implemented to monitor other abiotic and biotic stressors.

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