Vietnam has an age-old history of education, and Vietnamese people have high respect for learning. However, early childhood education (ECE) in Vietnam has been the main concern only since 1945. This paper describes the process of establishment and development of ECE in Vietnam. Before and during the French colonial period in Vietnam, early childhood education was not considered a social task, and therefore, there was no formal educational system and curriculum for preschool children at this time. After 1945, with the great transformation of history, Vietnamese education has changed dramatically so that from 1945 to 1975 it was a period of political, social and educational separation. The historical events affect the education system and early childhood education in Vietnam. Consequently, the history of ECE in Vietnam is separated into two main phases, before and after 1975. Through the ups and downs of history, Vietnam has successfully built the ECE system. Over seven decades of development, ECE in Vietnam has made remarkable changes. The change comes not only from the expansion of the number of educational institutions, but also from the curriculum and pedagogy that are considered as the most important changes. Gradually escaping the influence of teacher-centered pedagogy, Vietnamese ECE is aiming to build a child-centered education, thereby helping learners to reach their full potential.