The uteri of normal pony mares in oestrus were infected experimentally with Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Uterine contents were collected 30, 60, 120 or 240 minutes later and were tested for their chemotactic effect on equine-neutrophils both with a morphological assay based on neutrophil shape changes and with a modified Boyden chamber technique. By 30 minutes after infection the uterine contents were markedly chemotactic for isolated peripheral neutrophils and remained so at the 240-minute collection. Uterine contents from uninfected mares had minimal chemotactic properties. These results could explain the early neutrophil response to acute endometritis in the mare which probably involves activation of an endogenous chemotactic system.