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EANM recommendations based on systematic analysis of small animal radionuclide imaging in inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases

  • Aarntzen, Erik H. J. G.1, 2
  • Noriega-Álvarez, Edel1, 3
  • Artiko, Vera1, 4
  • Dias, André H.1, 5
  • Gheysens, Olivier1, 6
  • Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.1, 7
  • Lauri, Chiara1, 8
  • Treglia, Giorgio1, 9, 10, 11
  • van den Wyngaert, Tim12, 13, 14
  • van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.15, 16
  • Terry, Samantha Y. A.1, 17
  • 1 Inflammation and Infection Committee EANM,
  • 2 Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center,
  • 3 General University Hospital of Ciudad Real,
  • 4 University of Belgrade,
  • 5 Aarhus University Hospital,
  • 6 Université Catholique de Louvain (UCLouvain),
  • 7 University of Groningen Medical Imaging Center,
  • 8 “Sapienza” University of Rome,
  • 9 Ente Ospedaliero Cantonale,
  • 10 Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne,
  • 11 Università Della Svizzera Italiana,
  • 12 Bone and Joint Committee EANM,
  • 13 Antwerp University Hospital Belgium,
  • 14 University of Antwerp,
  • 15 Translational Molecular Imaging and Therapy Committee EANM,
  • 16 Leiden University Medical Center,
  • 17 King’s College London,
Published Article
EJNMMI Research
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Sep 06, 2021
DOI: 10.1186/s13550-021-00820-8
PMID: 34487263
PMCID: PMC8421483
PubMed Central
  • Guideline


Inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases represent a group of chronic and disabling conditions that evolve from a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors that cause perturbations in innate and adaptive immune responses. Understanding the pathogenesis of inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases is, to a large extent, derived from preclinical and basic research experiments. In vivo molecular imaging enables us to study molecular targets and to measure biochemical processes non-invasively and longitudinally, providing information on disease processes and potential therapeutic strategies, e.g. efficacy of novel therapeutic interventions, which is of complementary value next to ex vivo (post mortem) histopathological analysis and molecular assays. Remarkably, the large body of preclinical imaging studies in inflammatory musculoskeletal disease is in contrast with the limited reports on molecular imaging in clinical practice and clinical guidelines. Therefore, in this EANM-endorsed position paper, we performed a systematic review of the preclinical studies in inflammatory musculoskeletal diseases that involve radionuclide imaging, with a detailed description of the animal models used. From these reflections, we provide recommendations on what future studies in this field should encompass to facilitate a greater impact of radionuclide imaging techniques on the translation to clinical settings. Supplementary Information The online version contains supplementary material available at (10.1186/s13550-021-00820-8).

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