Abstract It is accepted worldwide that one of the most important solution concerning the future of agricultural activities is improvement of rural lands. Today, in agricultural lands in several countries, land consolidation works are performed for the purpose of increasing production and efficiency and accordingly, ensuring perpetuity of cropping. At the same time, land consolidations are used as an effective tool in sustainable rural development plans. Consolidation works were initiated in 1961 in Turkey, but sufficient success could not be achieved. In this study, methods applied and problems encountered in consolidation practices for rural land resources in Turkey were elaborated. At the same time, place and importance of land consolidation in sustainable efficient use of rural land resources were assessed.