Clay mineral and bulk chemical (Si, Al, K, Mg, Sr, La, Ce, Nd) analyses of terrigenous surface sediments on the Siberian-Arctic shelf indicate that there are five regions with distinct, or endmember, sedimentary compositions. The formation of these geochemical endmembers is controlled by sediment provenance and grain size sorting. (1) The shale endmember (Al, K and REE rich sediment) is eroded from fine-grained marine sedimentary rocks of the Verkhoyansk Mountains and Kolyma-Omolon superterrain, and discharged to the shelf by the Lena, Yana, Indigirka and Kolyma Rivers. (2) The basalt endmember (Mg rich) originates from NE Siberia's Okhotsk-Chukotsk volcanic belt and Bering Strait inflow, and is prevalent in Chukchi Sea Sediments. Concentrations of the volcanically derived clay mineral smectite are elevated in Chukchi fine-fraction sediments, corroborating the conclusion that Chukchi sediments are volcanic in origin. (3) The mature sandstone endmember (Si rich) is found proximal to Wrangel Island and sections of the Chukchi Sea's Siberian coast and is derived from the sedimentary Chukotka terrain that comprises these landmasses. (4) The immature sandstone endmember (Sr rich) is abundant in the New Siberian Island region and reflects inputs from sedimentary rocks that comprise the islands. (5) The immature sandstone endmember is also prevalent in the western Laptev Sea, where it is eroded from sedimentary deposits blanketing the Siberian platform that are compositionally similar to those on the New Siberian Islands. Western Laptev can be distinguished from New Siberian Island region sediments by their comparatively elevated smectite concentrations and the presence of the basalt endmember, which indicate Siberian platform flood basalts are also a source of western Laptev sediments. In certain locations grain size sorting noticeably affects shelf sediment chemistry. (1) Erosion of fines by currents and sediment ice rafting contributes to the formation of the coarse-grained sandstone endmembers. (2) Bathymetrically controlled grain size sorting, in which fines preferentially accumulate offshore in deeper, less energetic water, helps distribute the fine-grained shale and basalt endmembers. An important implication of these results is that the observed sedimentary geochemical endmembers provide new markers of sediment provenance, which can be used to track sediment transport, ice-rafted debris dispersal or the movement of particle-reactive contaminants.