Abstract During the French revolution, the term « émigré » will refer to people who will leave their Country because of the revolutionary events. The reasons of these departures will be multiple but mainly justified by a political aspiration or by the fear. These expatriates, all social classes taken together will be the special target of the revolutionners. They will elaborate an exceptional repressive law to eliminate the problem represented by the emigration. This legislation will be variously enforced according to the regions and their different sensibilities. This article purpose is searching a potential specificity of the Basque country through the different questions raised by the emigration phenomenon. Will this province live an emigration movment? What will be his numerical importance and his motivation? What about the enforcement of the revolutionary legislation on the two main divisions: penal and patrimonial?