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Immunopharmacology of Lipid A Mimetics-Chapter Three

Elsevier Inc.
DOI: 10.1016/b978-0-12-404717-4.00003-2
  • Lipopolysaccharide
  • Monophosphoryl Lipid A
  • Septic Shock
  • Vaccination
  • Tlr4
  • Md2
  • Biology
  • Medicine


Abstract The structural core of bacterial lipopolysaccharide, lipid A, has played a role in medicine since the 1890s when William Coley sought to harness its immunostimulatory properties in the form of a crude bacterial extract. Recent decades have brought remarkable clarity to the structure of lipid A and the multicomponent endotoxin receptor system that evolved to detect it. A range of therapeutically useful versions of lipid A now exists, including preparations of detoxified lipid A, synthetic copies of naturally occurring biological intermediates such as lipid IVa, and synthetic mimetics. These agents are finding use as vaccine adjuvants, antagonists and immunostimulants whose structural features have been refined to potentiate efficacy while decreasing the risk of inflammatory side effects.

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