The purpose of this study was to identify and investigate the essential reasons for the extractions of the teeth of the permanent dentition. Materials and methods: The research was done at the Department of Endodontics and Restorative Dentistry and the Department of Oral Surgery School of Dental Medicine in Zagreb, Croatia, during the period from January through March 2007. The method was based upon a questionnaire which, other than the basic personal data on the patient, also included the essential reasons for each particular extraction. The data collected was then statistically processed by parametric and non-parametric analyses of variance, depending on the respective distributions of the results. Results: A total of 113 subjects, within the age bracket 10 - 85, was interviewed. Of that number, 61 (54%) were female and 52 (46%) male patients. With regard to the declared frequency of visits to the dentist, slightly prevailing (54.9%) were those with an irregular history of visits. The principal reason for a tooth extraction was caries (53.4%). Furthermore, 75.7% of the patients did not have any previous endodontic treatment prior to extraction. With regard to the position of the teeth, the most frequently extracted were the first permanent molars, on the account of caries (25.3%). The lower front teeth were extracted mostly because of periodontitis, and in the 45+ age-group (8.7%), whereas in the younger-age groups it was the first premolars, extracted exclusively for orthodontic reasons. Conclusion: Due to extensive carious destructions of the molars it was not possible to provide an adequate endodontic treatment and/or conservative therapy, so extraction was the sole option for those unrestorable teeth. It is therefore recommendable that prevention programs be pursued to achieve and maintain oral health.