Abstract It has been known that the reinforcing effects and long-term consequences of morphine are closely associated with nucleus accumbens (NAc) in the brain, a key region of the mesolimbic dopamine pathway. However, the proteins involved in neuroadaptive processes and withdrawal symptom in primates of morphine dependence have not been well explored. In the present study, we performed proteomes in the NAc of rhesus monkeys of morphine dependence and withdrawal intervention with clonidine or methadone. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to compare changes in cytosolic protein abundance in the NAc. We found a total of 46 proteins differentially expressed, which were further identified by mass spectrometry analysis. The identified proteins can be classified into 6 classes: metabolism and mitochondrial function, synaptic transmission, cytoskeletal proteins, oxidative stress, signal transduction and protein synthesis and degradation. Importantly, we discovered 14 proteins were significantly but similarly altered after withdrawal therapy with clonidine or methadone, revealing potential pharmacological strategies or targets for the treatment of morphine addiction. Our study provides a comprehensive understanding of the neuropathophysiology associated with morphine addiction and withdrawal therapy in primate, which is helpful for the development of opiate withdrawal pharmacotherapies.