Abstract Background. We previously demonstrated that thyroid peroxidase (TPO) immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibody 47 can help to differentiate benign (staining score, 80% or more) from malignant (staining score, less than 80%) thyroid nodules on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) samples. In the present study we assessed the use of TPO immunocytochemistry in the cytologic diagnosis of thyroid follicular neoplasms. Methods. A total of 109 histologically proven follicular tumors were studied. There were 60 microfollicular adenomas, 23 atypical adenomas, 17 oncocytic adenomas, and 9 follicular carcinomas. Adequate preoperative FNA samples were available in all cases. TPO immunocytochemistry was performed on one half of the slides. Results. The staining score was less than 80% in all follicular carcinomas, whereas it was 80% or more in 68 of 100 benign tumors. There was no false negative and 32 false positives for diagnosis of malignancy. The false positives were 10 microfollicular adenomas, 13 atypical adenomas, and 9 oncocytic adenomas. TPO immunocytochemistry has a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 68% for screening of follicular cancer. Conclusions. TPO immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibody 47 on FNA samples is a highly sensitive and fairly specific method to distinguish benign from malignant follicular neoplasms. This technique can help to reduce the number of surgical procedures for benign thyroid nodules without increased risk of overlooking malignancy.