Abstract Adult male rats were given 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nucleus accumbens, followed immediately by injections of saline or nerve growth factor (NGF; 125 B.U.) near the substantia nigra. Such lesions were previously reported to attenuate the locomotor response to d-amphetamine. NGF-treated rats showed an enhanced response to d-amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg) when tested 15 days postoperatively. Levels of dopamine and norepinephrine in the striatum and nucleus accumbens were equivalently depressed in the two lesion groups, indicating that the apparent recovery of the NGF-treated rats was probably not due to catecholaminergic neuronal regrowth. Intracerebral NGF administration enhanced the response to d-amphetamine 15 days later in rats without lesions, and also appeared to result in increased turnover of brain norepinephrine and serotonin at 3, but not 15, days postadministration. NGF might increase dopamine turnover at 15 days, but the evidence obtained did not convincingly confirm or negate this possibility. The results show that intracerebral NGF administration can produce similar behavioral changes in brain-damaged and intact rats, and also modify the apparent turnover of brain monoamines.