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Measuring Welfare Effects of Substitute Recreation Site Using Spatial Travel Cost Model



Slide 1 S.G. Kim, S. Cho, R.K. Roberts, and D.M. Lambert Agricultural & Resource Economics University of Tennessee J.M. Bowker D.B.K. English U.S. Forest Service C.M. Starbuck Economics & International Business New Mexico State University Spatial Travel Cost Model Detect Outliers Introduction Case Study: Allegheny National Forest Measuring Welfare Effects of Substitute Recreation Sites Using Spatial Travel Cost Model • The objective is to estimate welfare effects of substitute recreation sites • by incorporate spatial interdependencies in the number of visits that are positive integers and truncated at zero Measure Substitutability of Park and Forest • 1,000 miles away from a recreational site to visitors’ origin • Outside the state (Pennsylvania) • Top 5% of most frequent visitors Existing tools used in the travel cost literature • Cook's D and Dfbeta Approaches typically used in statistics • k–means clustering Cluster analysis • Spatial heteroskedastic autocorrelation consistent (HAC) covariance estimators extended to the negative binomial-2 heteroskedastic robust covariance estimator (Conley, 1999, Kelejian and Prucha, 2007, Lambert and McNamara, 2009) • 2001 and 2005 National Forest Visitor Use Survey Agricultural & Applied Economics Association’s 2011 AAEA & NAREA Joint Annual Meeting, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, July 24-26, 2011 Slide Number 1

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