The northeast of the Iberian Peninsula is home to the evergreen cherry tree Prunus lusitanica L. , an emblematic relict tree species related to the Tertiary flora. This study provides precise data on its population sizes, demographic structure, population recruitment and asexual regeneration capacity. In addition, some management recommendations are proposed for the conservation of the species. In total, over 1000 individuals have been recorded, distributed in 12 populations. Despite of the small population sizes no recruitment limitation has been detected since juveniles are the most abundant in most of the studied populations. Prunus lusitanica also shows asexual regeneration by means of layering shoots and basal shoots and is highly variable among individuals and populations.