Growth disorders resulting in short stature are caused by a wide range of underlying pathophysiological processes. To improve height many of these conditions are treated with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). However, substantial inter-individual variability in growth response both in the short and long-term is recognised. Over the last decade, disease-specific growth prediction models have been developed that the clinician can use to define a child's potential response to rhGH and to optimise starting and maintenance doses of rhGH. These models, however, are not able to predict all the variations in treatment response. There has, therefore, been recent interest in using genetic information to contribute to the evaluation of responses to rhGH, including high-throughput technologies for assessing DNA markers (genome) and mRNA transcripts (transcriptome) as pharmacogenomic tools. This review will focus on how these pharmacogenomic approaches are being applied to growth disorders. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.