Economic development of nation is in firm correlation with economic growth. According to modern comprehensions contemporary theoreticians of economic growth mainly agree that technological progress is the main determinant of long-term economic growth. For technological progress and innovations especially significant are processes and activities of research and development, respectively diffusion of technologies. The most extensive frame within which the eficiency of particular economies can be analyzed is the concept of national innovative system. It implies a certain level of interaction and synchronization among subsystems: universities, scientific and research institutions, economic subjects, public administration. Strategies and economic policies in developed countries contribute to affirmation of knowledge and intellectual capital. It is a question of key resources and sources of competitive advantage in contemporary economies based on knowledge.