Endodontics deals with morphology, physiology and pathology of dental pulp and periapical tissues. Primary teeth have large pulp chambers, prominent pulp horns and thinner enamel and dentin. When children suffer from inflammation or infection of the dental pulp the problem is usually caused by deep dental caries. Exposure of the dental pulp leads to pathological changes, such as reversible pulpitis, irreversible pulpitis, hyperplastic pulpitis, necrosis and gangrene. The purpose of endodontic therapy is to preserve chewing and development function, phonetic and aesthetic features until natural shedding of primary teeth occurs. Diagnosis is the most important and most complex part during the treatment of dental pulp and enables the right choice of therapy. The choice of therapeutic procedures that can be used are: indirect pulp cap, direct pulp cap, pulpotomy (vital, devitalisation, mortal) and pulpectomy. All therapeutic procedures ensure maximum safety for the permanent tooth germ.