The role of women in African economies is more emphasised in recent years by ensuring gender equality and women empowerment. But the fact remains as women have less access to resources, education and health facilities in most of the developing countries. Greater participation of women in economic activities is the major concern of most of the countries in Africa. The picture is same in Eritrea, which became independence recently, with low levels of women education and their participation in the economy. An attempt is made in this paper to analyse women participation in economic activities in Africa in general and Eritrea in particular. The paper also provides some policy measures seeking higher participation of women in Eritrean economy.