ABSTRACT Purpose: Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) contributes to post-obstructive diuresis in bilateral ureteral obstruction (BUO). In this study we examined the activity of neutral endopeptidase (NEP), an enzyme responsible for degradation of ANP, in the kidney in rats subjected to BUO for 24 hours. Materials and Methods: Renal function was examined by the clearance method in sham operated rats and BUO rats after obstruction release. Renal responses to an intravenous bolus injection of ANP (5 μg/kg) were studied in sham operated and BUO rats with or without pretreatment with intravenous phosphoramidon (100 μg/kg per minute), a NEP inhibitor. Results: In BUO rats natriuresis and diuresis occurred despite a marked decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). ANP administration increased GFR and induced marked natriuresis and diuresis in sham operated and BUO rats. Inhibition of ANP degradation by phosphoramidon induced natriuresis and diuresis, and accentuated these renal responses to ANP. Conclusions: Renal responses to ANP and renal NEP activity were preserved in 24-hour BUO. NEP inhibition to attenuate ANP degradation augmented responses to ANP in increasing GFR, natriuresis and diuresis. These findings provide the theoretical potential for facilitating the recovery of GFR after BUO release by inhibiting ANP degradation by pharmacological means.