Abstract Pregnant Fischer 344 rats and CD-1 mice were exposed to methyl isobutyl ketone vapor (CAS No. 108-10-1) by inhalation on Gestational Days 6 through 15 at concentrations of 0, 300, 1000, or 3000 ppm (mean analytical values of 0, 305, 1012, and 2997 ppm, respectively). The animals were sacrificed on Gestational Day 21 (rats) or 18 (mice), and live fetuses were examined for external, visceral, and skeletal alterations. In rats, exposure to 3000 ppm resulted in maternal toxicity expressed as clinical signs, decreased body weight and body weight gain, increased relative kidney weight, and decreased food consumption, and in fetotoxicity expressed as reduced fetal body weight per litter and reductions in skeletal ossification. In mice, exposure to 3000 ppm resulted in maternal toxicity expressed as exposure-related increases in deaths (12.0%, 3/25 dams), clinical signs, and increased absolute and relative liver weight, and in fetotoxicity expressed as increased incidence of dead fetuses, reduced fetal body weight per litter, and reductions in skeletal ossification. No treatment-related increases in embryotoxicity or fetal malformations were seen in either species at any exposure concentration tested. There was no evidence of treatment-related maternal, embryo, or fetal toxicity (including malformations) at 1000 or 300 ppm in either species.