Pathogenic mycobacteria persist and replicate within phagosomes of host phagocytes by inhibiting phagosome maturation at an early endosome stage. The molecular basis for this behavior is not understood. To identify proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis unique to the intraphagosomal phase, mycobacteria were purified from phagosomes of infected murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and analyzed by high-resolution 2-DE and MS. Protein patterns of intraphagosomally grown M. tuberculosis were compared with those of broth-cultured mycobacteria. The analysis revealed 11 mycobacterial proteins exclusively detected in intraphagosomal mycobacteria. Some of these proteins are involved in metabolism and cell envelope synthesis, such as the lipid carrier protein Rv1627c, and the conserved hypothetical protein Rv1130 that shows homology to a virulence-associated protein of Legionella pneumophila. The relevance of these proteins as factors enabling intracellular survival of M. tuberculosis is being discussed.