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Ökologie and Taxonomie der Hypotrichida (Protozoa: Ciliophora) einiger österreichischer Böden)

Archiv für Protistenkunde
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/s0003-9365(82)80065-1
  • Medicine


Summary The terrestrial Hypotrichida were investigated at 15 alpine sample plots (SO) in the Austrian Central Alps and at 7 lowland SO in the Tullnerfeld near Vienna. 40 species were found, 23 of them in the Alps and 30 in the Tullnerfeld. On the average, the alpine SO showed a significantly lower species number then those in the Tullnerfeld. Only Gonostomum affine occurred at all SO. 19 of the 40 species were found at 1-2 SO only. The comparatively low species identity between the alpine SO and the lowland SO refers to the possibility that the Hypotrichida are especially well suited for the characterization of edaphic ciliate communities. The abundance was estimated by the culture method of Buitkamp (1979). 0-914000 individuals/1000 g dry weight were found in the 0-5 cm soil layer. Within the edaphic ciliate communities the Hypotrichida are slightly overrepresentated in species number and strongly underrepresentated in abundance, mainly in favour of the Colpodida. Most terrestrial Hypotrichida are well adapted to the porous structure of their environment by special morphological features, e.g. slender, worm-like form of the body, pronounced flexibility, strongly marked dorso-ventral flattening and reduction of the ciliature of the ventral side. The morphology, the infraciliature, and the silverline system of these 40 species were described according to protargol and silver nitrate preparations. Most species were biometrically characterized with the aid of about 15 - 20 characteristics. The evaluation of all biometrical data showed average coefficients of variation ({ie) between 0.0 and 2.80 for the number of buccal cirri (monociliate species), dorsal kineties, frontal cirri and macronucleus-fragments (binucleate species). Thus, these features are largely constant and of great importance for species diagnoses, especially the number of the dorsal kineties. Comparatively low Vr between 7.27 and 11.28 were calculated for the following features: number of adoral membranelles, length of the adoral zone of membranelles, number of cirri of the right marginal row, width of the micronucleus, number of cirri of the left marginal row, length of the macronucleus. These characteristics are very important for α-taxonomy too, because of their small variability and uniformity. 12 other features showed fairly high {ie} between 11.45 and 20.40 (Table 3). The number of buccal cirri and macronucleus-fragments give a good example for the phylogenetic rule of reduction in number of similar structures and the standardization of the number of structures combined therewith: the {ie} of these structures were very much higher in the polyciliate and polynucleate species than in the monociliate and binucleate species. The following new taxa were discovered: Engelmanniella nov. gen., Amphisiella acuta nov. spec., Eschaneustyla terricola nov. spec., Euplotes finki nov. spec., Gastrostyla dorsicirrata nov. spec., Gonostomum franzi nov. spec., Holosticha adami nov. spec., Holosticha sigmoidea nov. spec., Holosticha sylvatica nov. spec., Paraurostyla buitkampi nov. spec., Paraurostyla macrostoma nov. spec., Paruroleptus notabilis nov. spec., Perisincirra filiformis nov. spec., Perisincirra gellerti nov. spec., Perisincirra gracilis nov. spec., Perisincirra interrupta nov. spec., Perisincirra similis nov. spec., Perisincirra viridis nov. spec., Strongylidium wilberti nov. spec., Urosomoida agiliformis nov. spec., Urosomoida dorsiincisura nov. spec. New combinations: Paruroleptus muscorum nov. comb. for Uroleptus muscorum Kahl, 1932, Engelmanniella mobilis nov. comb. for Uroleptus mobilis Engelmann, 1862, Engelmanniella halseyi nov. comb. for Uroleptus halseyi Calkins, 1929, Engelmanniella kahli nov. comb. for Uroleptus kahli Grolière, 1975. Oxytricha rubra Buitkamp, 1977 was synonymized with Steinia rniuscorum Kahl, 1932.

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