Since the sixties, Spanish agriculture has made a very important effort to modernise. That modernisation develops a contradiction between the requirements of an efficient agriculture -required for the competitiveness within the EEC- and those of rural development. That contradiction is going to continue and increase in the fore- seable future. Agriculture alone cannot any longer be the base of rural development. Rural development becomes a matter for consciencious social choice. New investigations on subjects such as pluriactivity, tourism, new systems of diffused industrialisation and even direct social support will be necessary. Is rural development desired, by whom, who is going to pay for it, become important issues that require debate ?