The article considers demographic features and an adaptation process of the Komi population from Muzhi village Soviet, Shuryshkary District (Yamal and Nenetz national region) to new socioeconomic conditions in the thirties-forties of the XXth century, an involvement of the Komi people into collective farms, fishing and agricultural cooperative associations. A conclusion arrived is that apart from traditional economic activities, the Komi- Zyryanye from the Upper Urals in the early third of the ХХth century were busy in new branches of industry, in a social sphere, as well as in services industry. By 1940, a public mode of production got predominant. A household became of a secondary type, with an exception of reindeer breeding. A majority of the Komi-Zyryanye women grew active in industry.