1. History; 2. Ammonia Synthesis with Iron-Based Catalysts; 3. Alternative Catalysts; Bibliography. The first industrial plant for the manufacture of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen on the basis of the Haber–Bosch process started operation in 1909 by using a promoted iron catalyst developed by Mittasch. In recent years the individual reaction steps were explored in detail, both experimentally and theoretically. Ruthenium-based catalysts present promising alternatives for future technologies.