In this randomized, multicenter trial, we evaluated the effectiveness and side effect profile of a modified omeprazole-based triple therapy to cure Helicobacter pylori infection. The control group consisted of patients treated with standard dual therapy comprising omeprazole and amoxicillin. One hundred and fifty-seven H. pylori infected patients with duodenal ulcers were randomly assigned to receive either a combination of omeprazole 10 mg, clarithromycin 250 mg and metronidazole 400 mg (OCM) given three times daily for 10 days (n = 81),or a combination of omeprazole 20 mg and amoxicillin 1 g (OA) given twice daily for 14 days (n = 76). Prior to treatment and after 2 and 6 weeks, gastric biopsies from the antrum and corpus were obtained for histology and H. pylori culture. H. pylori infection was cured in 97.4% after OCM and in 65.8% after OA in the per-protocol analysis (p < 0.001) (intention-to-treat analysis: 93.4% and 63.2%, respectively). H. pylori was successfully cultured in 122 patients (77%). The overall rate of metronidazole resistance was 19.7% (24/122), no primary resistance to clarithromycin or amoxicillin was found. In the OCM group, all patients infected with metronidazole-sensitive H. pylori strains (n = 51) and those infected with strains of unknown susceptibility to metronidazole (n = 14)were cured (100%), while 77% (10/13) of those harboring metronidazole-resistant. strains were cured of the infection (p = 0.36). Side effects leading to premature termination of treatment occurred in 2.5% of the patients in the OCM group and in 1.4 % of the OA group. We conclude that combined treatment with omeprazole, clarithromycin and a higher dose of metronidazole is highly effective in curing H, pylori infection, Helicobacter pylori omeprazole and that this regimen remains very effective in the presence of metronidazole resistant strains.