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The role of cytoreductive surgery in nongenital cancers metastatic to the ovaries

Gynecologic Oncology
Publication Date
DOI: 10.1016/j.ygyno.2005.05.028
  • Ovarian Cancer
  • Nongenital Cancers
  • Ovarian Metastasis
  • Cytoreductive Surgery
  • Cytoreductive Surgery In Nongenital Cancers Metastatic To The Ovaries
  • Survival
  • Biology
  • Ecology
  • Medicine


Abstract Objective. To investigate the role of cytoreductive surgery in patients with nongenital cancers metastatic to the ovaries. Patients and methods. One hundred and fifty-four patients with nongenital cancers metastatic to the ovaries treated in Hacettepe University Hospital, Gynecologic Oncology Unit between 1982 and 2004 years were retrospectively evaluated. Data were obtained from patients' records and pathology reports. Demographic characteristics, prognostic factors, 5-year and median survivals were analyzed in all patients. Results. During study period, nongenital cancers metastatic to the ovaries constituted 9% of all malignant ovarian neoplasms. Primary cancers were breast (35), stomach (35) and colorectal (33) cancers, lymphoma (17), undetermined origin (16), appendix (7), ileum (4), pancreas (3), gallbladder cancer (2) and mesothelioma (2). Of patients, 67% were premenopausal and 33% were postmenopausal. Although most common presenting symptoms were abdominal distension with dyspeptic complaints in 46%, abdominal mass in 22%, and pressure symptoms in 8.4%, 15 patients (10%) were asymptomatic and were diagnosed in routine control examinations. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (TAH + BSO), omentectomy, and bilateral pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy (BP-PALND) with cytoreduction were performed in 102 patients (66%), TAH + BSO + omentectomy in 21 patients (14%), TAH + BSO in 23 patients (15%), minimal surgical effort including BSO or biopsy in 8 patients (5%). Eighty-four percent of patients received adjuvant treatment according to the primary origins. Mean follow-up was 47.3 ± 5.9 months. Overall, 5-year survival was 36% and median survival was 42 months. Comparison of median survival times for the primary sites showed a significant overall differences ( P = 0.0001) and were as follows: breast 54 months, stomach 18 months, colorectal 48 months, lymphoma 181 months, unknown primary 16 months, appendix 18 months, ileum 40 months, pancreas 3 months, gallbladder 8 months and mesothelioma 20 months. Median survival time of patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery was 48 months, compared with 26 months for patients with suboptimal cytoreductive surgery ( P = 0.0039). The 5-year survival rate was 47% and 23%, respectively. Multivariate analysis identified age, menopausal status, primary site, diffuse peritoneal involvement and type of operation as prognostic factors. Conclusion. Presence of ovarian metastasis is associated with a poor prognosis in nongenital cancers. Surgery is essential for diagnosis of primary tumor and necessary for relief of symptoms. Cytoreductive surgery seems to have a beneficial effect on survival of selected patients, especially for patients with colorectal cancer metastatic to the ovary.

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