In Mexico, the recent upsurge of the global food prices have affected, more than proportionately, the most margined sectors of the population. According with the present results, it is possible to conclude that, even though poverty is highly sensitive to food prices increase, the substitution capacity of the families helps cushion the wealth lose of the poorest. Different targeting mechanisms were analyzed in their efficiency for allocating public funds. In this case, food price subsidies were not the best mechanisms studied. In contrast, the usage of the "Oportunidades" platform had a higher targeting efficiency. However, it is important to remember that a large share of the Mexican population below food poverty line does not receive any support from social programs. For the Federal Government, this represents a big challenge of extending their coverage in the short and medium term.