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A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Levels after Extubation in Preterm Infants

Authors
Journal
The Journal of Pediatrics
0022-3476
Publisher
Elsevier
Volume
164
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2013.08.040
Disciplines
  • Design
  • Medicine

Abstract

Objective To compare extubation failure rate with two ranges of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) in oxygen dependent preterm infants. Study design Preterm infants of birth weight 500-1000 g and gestational age 23-30 weeks, extubated for the first time during the first 6 weeks while requiring fraction of inspired oxygen ≥ 0.25, were randomly assigned to a NCPAP range of 4-6 (low NCPAP) or 7-9 (high NCPAP) cmH2O. Results Infants were randomized to low (n = 47) or high NCPAP (n = 46) at day 16.3 ± 14.7 and 15.5 ± 12.4, respectively. Rates of extubation failure per criteria (24% vs 43%, P = .04, OR and 95% CI: 0.39 [0.16-0.96]) and re-intubation (17% vs 38%, P = .023, 0.33 [0.016-0.85]) within 96 hours were significantly lower in the high- compared with the low NCPAP group. This was mainly due to a strikingly lower failure rate in the 500-750 g birth weight strata. Duration of ventilation, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia did not differ significantly. No infant developed pneumothorax during 96 hours post-extubation. Conclusions Extubation failure in preterm infants with residual lung disease was lower with NCPAP range of 7-9 compared with 4-6 cmH2O. These findings suggest the need for higher distending pressure post-extubation in the more immature infants who are still oxygen dependent.

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