The aim of this paper is to present the constitution of the «Junta Provincial de Protección de la Infancia» in Barcelona in 1908, and describe the task it carried out in order to fight against social deviation and margination of childhood until the end of 1909, when due to economical difficulties it was forced to dissolve. The study is divided in two parts, the first of them is focused in giving a summary of the general legislative context (Childhood Protection Law 1904 and its Regulation in 1908) that allowed the foundation of the Local and Provincial Councils of Childhood Protection. In the second one, the study explains the concrete case of the Protection Council in Barcelona during the period of 1908 and 1909. It is analysed the social and educational intervention plan designed by the Council and the way it was applied, showing its most significant elements and the difficulties found. The paper is basically based on primary documental sources, coming from some of the process main characters personal archives (Josep Pedragosa and Ramón Albó), and also from the Protection Councils own archives. The use of such kind of sources enables to enrich the strict institutional history.