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The bifactor structure and the “dark nomological network” of the State Self-Esteem Scale

Personality and Individual Differences
DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2014.08.006
  • Self-Esteem
  • Personality
  • Validation
  • Psychometrics
  • Confirmatory Factor Analysis
  • Bifactor Model


Abstract The State Self-Esteem Scale (SSES) measures transient feelings of self-worth. The SSES has been hypothesized to possess a number of latent structures, ranging from one to three factors. The present study compared these putative structures along with a newly hypothesized bifactor structure (i.e., one global factor, three subfactors). Results offered greatest support for the bifactor model. A secondary goal was to further assess the nomological network surrounding state self-esteem by examining correlations involving an expanded measure of basic personality (i.e., the HEXACO), Dark Triad traits, and sexual attitudes and behaviors. In general, these correlations were consistent with the theoretical portrait of state self-esteem and were also consistent with correlations involving trait-level self-esteem. Most notably, however, scores on the SSES consistently correlated negatively with measures of the Dark Triad traits, suggesting a possible theoretical distinction between state- and trait-level self-esteem.

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