Abstract Fossil fuels, including coal, oil and gas, cannot be counted upon as a major energy fuel resource over a long time period. Given that energy utilisation patterns will not alter from those presently characteristic then only three potential fuel sources currently appear adequate to meet the large part of future requirements. These are solar, nuclear fusion and nuclear fission energy. Of these, nuclear fusion energy remains technically unproved. In the highly developed world nuclear fission appears to have been chosen as the major future energy resource. But many would hold that promotional opportunism of the nuclear establishment rather than merit has served as the basis for this choice.