The total lipid and free fatty acid contents of Isotricha intestinalis, Entodinium simplex, and the rumen bacterial flora of the respective protozoa were determined. Warburg manometric data showed that the sodium salts of tributyrin, oleic, and acetic acids stimulated gas production in I. intestinalis, whereas tributyrin was stimulatory with E. simplex and less active with oleic and acetic acids. Rumen bacteria provided fatty acids produced lower manometric gaseous increases when compared with the protozoa. Volatile fatty acids were produced by I. intestinalis and rumen bacteria with tributyrin, but not with tripalmitin. Sodium oleate gave little volatile fatty acid response with I. intestinalis or rumen bacteria. Washed suspensions of I. intestinalis and rumen bacteria concentrated C14-labeled oleic, palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acids within the cells during short incubation periods. Autoradiographs demonstrated the conversion of C14-labeled oleic, palmitic, stearic, linoleic, and acetic acids in the rumen protozoa and bacterial cells.