Publisher Summary Despite the identification of some major theoretical differences, there are also many common themes and emphases across the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Overall, the field has clearly evolved to focus more closely on process. As knowledge has accumulated from the pioneering efforts of the early research through newer voices in the field, it is no longer necessary or desirable to frame questions in terms of whether certain factors have positive or negative effects on motivation or performance. Instead, the greatest impact comes from asking how these effects occur. In so doing, researchers have developed more complex models that incorporate individuals' goals (both chronic and acute) and identify both cognitive and affective processes through which different factors can affect motivation and performance. One of the strongest themes to emerge in this field is that researchers no longer focus on mutually exclusive relationships between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation. Instead, researchers have begun to investigate multiple ways that extrinsic motivation and intrinsic motivation can affect creativity, academic performance, and persistence, as well as affect activity choices both initially and over the long term throughout life. Thus, a lot has been learned since the mid-1970s, and are being pursued.