Abstract Mineral carbonation technology (MCT) is a process whereby CO2 is chemically reacted with calcium- and/or magnesium-containing minerals to form stable carbonate materials which do not incur any long-term liability or monitoring commitments. Mineral carbonation is a potentially attractive sequestration technology for the permanent and safe storage of CO2. Vast amounts of magnesium silicate minerals exist worldwide that may be carbonated, with magnesium carbonate as stable and environmentally harmless product. In this review, a number of processes under development, such as the Åbo Akademi University (ÅA) process routes, the CO2 Energy Reactor©, and the chemical and biological catalytic enhancement as new carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technology are discussed. The key factors of the mineral CO2 sequestration process are identified, their influence on the carbonation process and environmental impact of the reaction products with regard to their possible beneficial utilization are critically evaluated. Chemistry and comparative analysis of residues and ores carbonation processes, as well as cost and gap analyses of this technology are discussed.