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Carbon Futures Liquidity Effects: Evidence from the European Energy Exchange (EEX)

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The study examines liquidity effects after the onset of trading in phase II of the EU-ETS for EUA futures contracts. Using the orthodox market model and liquidity proxies, evidence of long-term improvement in liquidity of the EEX EUA December 2008 futures contract after the commencement of trading in phase II is obtained. Results suggest the application of a new regime of trading rules in phase II led to the improvements in liquidity.

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