Abstract A study to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) DNA vaccine in an aerosol model of nonhuman primate infection was performed. Cynomolgus macaques vaccinated with a plasmid expressing the 26S structural genes of VEEV subtype IAB by particle-mediated epidermal delivery (PMED) developed virus-neutralizing antibodies. No serum viremia was detected in two out of three macaques vaccinated with the VEEV DNA after aerosol challenge with homologous virus, while one displayed a low viremia on a single day postchallenge. In contrast, all three macaques vaccinated with empty vector DNA developed a high viremia that persisted for at least 3 days after challenge. In addition, macaques vaccinated with the VEEV DNA had reduced febrile reactions, lymphopenia, and clinical signs of disease postchallenge as compared to negative control macaques. Therefore, although the sample size was small in this pilot study, these results indicate that a VEEV DNA vaccine administered by PMED can at least partially protect nonhuman primates against an aerosol VEEV challenge.