Visceral (intra-abdominal) obesity is associated with a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that together promote macrovascular and microvascular disease. An atherogenic dyslipidemia, characterized by an increase in serum triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, a decrease in plasma levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased prevalence of small, dense low-density lipoprotein particles (although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are normal or only modestly elevated), as well as chronic inflammation, play key roles in the pathogenesis of visceral obesity-related complication. These abnormalities may be consequent to a global metabolic effect of insulin resistance. Pharmacological treatments, such as 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, fibric acid derivatives, insulin sensitizers and cannabinoid receptor type 1 blockers, are often required to correct the dyslipidemia of visceral obesity. The basis for a multiple approach to correcting dyslipoproteinemia in visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome relies on understanding the mechanisms of action of the individual therapeutic components.