The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is one of the main causes of encephalitis in Asia, including Cambodia. An understanding of the interactions between JEV hosts and vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) remains rare in the context of expanding urbanization. The relative abundance, species diversity and population dynamics of potential JEV vectors were studied between August 2015 and July 2016 on a peri-urban and rural pig farm in Kandal province, Cambodia, where JEV is circulating. Five similar environments in the two farms were selected for mosquito trapping: pig farm, cattle house, river/canals, household/ponds and paddy fields. The main objective was to describe the distribution and the dynamics of the main JEV vector mosquito species. In total, 83,013 mosquitoes from 20 species were caught in rural and peri-urban areas, and 82.3% of the mosquitoes were potential JEV vector species. In peri-urban areas, Culex (Cx.) gelidus was the most abundant species, followed by Cx. vishnui subgroup and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. In rural areas, the same species were dominant: Cx. vishnui subgroup, Cx. gelidus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The vast majority of mosquitoes (95.9%) were collected in close proximity to pigs and cattle. In conclusion, JEV vectors were present at all study sites and throughout all months of the year, supporting a continuous circulation of JEV in Cambodia.