This thesis is entitled Dynamic programming systems for modeling and control of the traffic in transportation networks. Two parts are distinguished in this dissertation: 1) methods and approaches based on min-plus or max-plus algebra, where the dynamics are deterministic dynamic programming systems; 2) methods and approaches whose dynamic systems are non-linear but are interpreted as stochastic dynamic programming systems. Each of the two parts includes a chapter of necessary reviews, two main chapters and a chapter summarizing other works related to the concerned part. Part 1 includes a first chapter containing an introduction and some necessary reviews; two main chapters, one on the max-plus algebra model for the train dynamics on a metro line, the other one on the network calculus approach for modeling and calculating performance bounds on road networks; and a final chapter summarizing my other contributions on the topic of this part. Part 2 includes a first chapter containing an introduction and some necessary reviews; two main chapters, one on the microscopic modeling of traffic taking into account anticipation in driving, the other one on the modeling of the train dynamics on a metro line taking into account the passenger travel demand; and a final chapter summarizing my other contributions on the topic of this part.