Awareness of the health effects of noise gradually became apparent in the second half of the 20th century, in contrast to the parallel urban planning decisions, which left a significant place for the automobile in the city. The high noise levels, combined with the increasing aspiration of city dwellers for a peaceful and environmentally friendly city, have quickly made noise a first-rate nuisance, which must be characterized and mitigated. In this context, this document presents a contribution to research in urban environmental acoustics that attempts to take advantage of a diversity of means to improve the characterization of urban noise environments, and seeks ways to evaluate noise mitigation strategies based on mobility solutions. This research calls for multiphysical couplings to highlight the temporal dynamics of noise. Chapter 1 focuses on the characterization of urban sound environments. The operational objective of this research is to propose acoustic indicators that capture the specificities of sound environments in their physical and perceptual dimensions and allow impacts to be determined. At the same time, these indicators must be estimable both through measurement and modelling. Chapter 2 focuses on measurement networks and on combined approaches associating measurement and modelling for the characterization of urban sound environments. The operational objective of this research is to propose strategies for sampling and processing the data collected in order to accurately estimate the indicators of interest. Data assimilation between measures and predictive models also aims to improve the estimation of indicators. Chapter 3 focuses on multi-physical couplings for traffic noise prediction and mitigation. The operational objective of this research is to develop couplings between noise prediction models and traffic models, to enable the evaluation of strategies to improve urban noise environments by acting on mobility. The models developed must meet different spatial scale requirements according to the strategies considered and be part of a broader multi-criteria evaluation objective. A discussion on research directions in urban environmental acoustics that present an interest in the medium and long term concludes the document.